Travel for knee replacement in Iran / The best orthopedic surgeon for knee replacement in Iran / The best orthopedic surgery clinics of the hospital for knee replacement in Iran / Free online orthopedic consultation for knee pain
What is a knee replacement or arthroplasty?
Knee arthroplasty, also called knee arthroplasty, is a type of surgery that replaces the articular surface of the femur and tibia in the knee joint with an artificial surface.
Knee arthroplasty is performed by careful replacement of ready-made prostheses in cases where the patient's joint surfaces have been destroyed for reasons such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, severe varus deformity or valgus, old intra-articular fractures or chronic intra-articular bleeding.
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What is the purpose of knee replacement surgery?
When this joint is damaged due to knee injuries, it causes severe pain that may distract the person from even simple activities such as climbing stairs or walking. The pain may even be present when sitting and sleeping.
If taking medication, changing the level of daily activities of life, and using a cane can not help reduce the patient's problems, it is usually the last resort to replace the knee joint. Replacement of joint surfaces can solve the problem of knee pain and deformity and return the patient to daily activities. The first replacement of the knee joint was performed in 1968. After that, surgical techniques were gradually improved and better artificial joints were made. Today, more than one million knee replacements are performed in the world every year.
The most important goal of knee replacement is to eliminate the pain caused by wear and tear in the knee due to wear and tear, rheumatism or destruction of the joint surface. It is an artificial joint of the knee. When the articular cartilage of the knee is destroyed for any reason, the movement of the joint becomes painful and the joint becomes dry and restricted in movement.
In this situation, by changing the joint surfaces, joint movements can be improved and pain can be eliminated. Knee replacement surgery is one of the most successful surgeries. Most knee prostheses last more than 20 years.
The relationship between knee replacement and age
Knee replacement surgery is mostly performed in the elderly and middle-aged people, but today, with the use of better artificial joints and newer surgical techniques, this operation can be performed at a young age and even in adolescence.
The patient's age, weight or gender is not a determining factor in deciding to have surgery, and the most important factor in deciding is the severity of the patient's pain and the disability that this pain has created for the patient's life.
It should be noted that obese people are three times more likely to get an infection after surgery and 1.5 times more likely to lose a joint.
Although it may seem that performing knee replacement surgery at a young age forces a person to replace the joint again at an older age, studies have shown that the sooner this surgery is performed, the more likely it is to eliminate the joint. Joint pain and dryness will be better.
What diseases lead to knee replacement?
The main reason for knee replacement surgery is pain and dryness of this joint. The most common diseases that cause pain and dryness in the knee joint and following which the patient needs to have knee replacement surgery are:
Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis usually occurs in people over the age of 50. In this disease, the cartilage of the joint is gradually destroyed. As a result, cartilage-free bones rub against each other, resulting in pain and limited movement.
Rheumatoid arthritis: In rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial layer (which covers the inner surface of the joint capsule and is responsible for the acidity of the synovial fluid) grows and becomes inflamed and secretes a lot of fluid. This inflammation gradually causes damage to the articular cartilage, resulting in pain and limited mobility.
Knee Injuries: Sometimes severe knee injuries can cause damage to the fracture site due to poor welding or severe damage to the knee ligaments. These lesions can gradually damage the articular cartilage, causing pain and limited movement.
To perform knee replacement surgery, the surgeon removes the remaining articular cartilage and a small amount of bone from these areas with incisions made in the lower surface of the femur and the upper surface of the tibia (tibia). Strengthens the bone bed with a special substance called bone cement. Then a strong piece of polyethylene plastic is placed between these two metal pieces.
In this way, the femurs and tibia can move together easily and painlessly. The surgeon makes bone incisions while replacing the knee joint in a way that also corrects the deformity and deviation of the knee.
When to Decide on Knee Replacement Surgery
In cases where the knee joint has suffered a lot of damage, usually the last way to get rid of the pain is knee replacement surgery. The decision to have joint replacement surgery is not the sole responsibility of the orthopedist. This is a collective decision in which the patient and his family must also be involved.
When to Decide on Knee Replacement Surgery
Severe pain in the knee joint that restricts daily activities such as walking, climbing stairs, and sitting and getting up from a chair.
Moderate to severe knee pain, even at rest
Knee pain with deformity and deviation of the knee
Knee pain with dryness in joint movement
Pain is not reduced with anti-inflammatory drugs
Do not tolerate painkillers or cause side effects with their use
Lack of knee healing with other surgeries
What are the expectations of knee replacement surgery?
It is very important that before the surgery, the patient should know what benefits this operation has for him and what problems he can not solve and what problems it can cause him.
More than 90% of people have significantly reduced pain after a knee replacement and are better able to perform daily activities. Of course, this surgery can never make your knee look exactly like a healthy knee. After surgery, you can do activities such as walking, swimming, cycling, driving, climbing stairs or climbing.
Activities such as brisk walking, hill climbing, skiing, tennis, lifting objects weighing more than 25 kg are not suitable for the artificial joint, and activities such as running, jumping and impact exercises are very dangerous for the artificial joint. are.
Even if we follow all the tips for a good care of the artificial joint, after a while, the plastic part of the joint will wear away little by little. Certainly, too much physical activity or too much weight speeds up this process.
How is knee replacement surgery performed?
In the knee replacement operation, part of the bone and cartilage of the lower part of the femur and the highest part of the tibia and the back of the patella are removed and replaced by an artificial joint, part of which is metal and another part is a very strong plastic.
The meniscus and some knee ligaments also come out. The attachment of the metal parts of the artificial joint to the remaining bones of the thighs, legs and patella is usually done using a substance called bone cement. Of course, there are also cement-free artificial knee joints.
To perform knee replacement surgery, the surgeon first makes a skin incision in the front of the knee joint and then removes the patella to remove the skin and subcutaneous tissue to identify the femur and tibia.
He first makes incisions in the lower end of the femur using chainsaws. With these incisions, the articular cartilage in this area is completely removed and the lower end of the femur is ready to receive the artificial joint.
The surgeon then attaches a piece of metal to the incised area using bone cement.
The same steps are repeated in the upper part of the tibia or tibia. That is, an incision is made on top of this bone and then a piece of metal is glued on top of the tibia using bone cement.
In the last step, a piece of durable polyethylene plastic is placed between these two metal pieces.
In some cases, the dorsal surface of the patella is cut and a piece of plastic is attached to the area.
It is observed that using knee replacement surgery, attempts are made to replace the surfaces that move on each other and replace them with artificial and resistant parts.
Unlike artificial hip joints, which are mostly made of cement-free type today, most artificial knee joints today are attached to the bone with cement.
Will an artificial knee joint work properly forever?
Artificial knee joints usually work for the patient for many years and allow the patient to enjoy an active and active life. However, artificial joints, like any other structure, can gradually wear out. The most important mechanism of wear of these artificial joints is their loosening in the bone.
While walking, a force is applied to the knee bones each time the foot touches the ground. This force also enters the joint of the artificial joint and the surrounding bones.
If the amount of this force is high, over time, the connection between the bone and the cement will weaken, resulting in a weak connection between the bone and the artificial joint. In this case, the artificial joint is loose and this looseness causes pain, instability and other problems in the joint.
Also, over time, due to the pressures applied to the plastic implanted in the artificial joint, microscopic particles are removed from it.
These particles are eaten by the body's white blood cells to get out of the body, but unfortunately in the process, white blood cells secrete toxic substances to fight these particles, which over time cause the bones around the artificial joint to be eaten and absorbed. Are by the body. Bone resorption also weakens its attachment to the prosthesis.
Procedures after knee replacement surgery
You should stay in the hospital for about 3-4 days after knee replacement surgery. And from the first day you will start slow and soft movements such as walking and sitting with the help of physiotherapy.
During the recovery period when the patient is hospitalized, nurses will monitor him or her thoroughly to ensure that the patient can perform personal and basic tasks such as: walking with a walker, standing for a short time if necessary, up or down. Do a few steps down the stairs.
The patient is allowed to leave the hospital when he / she can meet the following conditions:
Be able to bend and straighten your knee slowly and have a moderate range of motion in the knee area.
Be able to get up and down from the bed. Be able to walk with a walker or cane without help from others.
Can go up and down stairs.
Be able to do exercise and physiotherapy after knee replacement surgery at home.
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Begin recovery after knee replacement surgery
Once you are discharged from the hospital, your recovery period begins at home. After 2 to 4 weeks, the patient can resume work and resume a normal life.
Basically, after knee replacement surgery, there is a need for physiotherapy to fully restore strength to the knee. Because the leg muscles will feel weak due to non-use. After surgery and removal of major knee problems, physiotherapy strengthens the knee.
During this period, with the discretion of your doctor, you can have 20 to 30 minutes of physiotherapy daily. In these sessions, straightening and bending the knees is done slowly and the thigh muscles will be gradually strengthened.
In fact, physiotherapy helps to improve the range of motion of the knee and restore the strength of movement to the knee. Walking for 20 minutes a day can also speed up the knee healing process, and the use of crutches and walkers is recommended for extra support while walking.
Iran is the best choice for knee replacement surgery with the best orthopedic surgeons in the fields of general and sports orthopedics, etc., and with the lowest cost and the best available facilities, you will receive the medical and tourist services you want in Iran. Due to the difference between the price of the dollar and the Rial and the low value of the Iranian currency, in general, Iran is the best possible choice for medical and cosmetic surgeries.
If you are planning to travel to Iran for knee replacement surgery, internet visit services and digital medical records will also be part of our treatment package.
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