Types of cancers in the small intestine include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stroma tumors, and lymphoma.
Adenocarcinoma begins in glandular cells lining the small intestine and is the most common type of small bowel cancer. Most of these tumors form in the small intestine near the stomach. These tumors may grow and block the bowel.
Leiomyosarcoma begins in the flat muscle cells of the small intestine. Most of these tumors occur in the part of the small intestine close to the large intestine.
Diet and health history can affect the risk of small bowel cancer.
Anything that increases the risk of developing the disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean you have cancer. Also, not having risk factors does not mean you do not have cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for small bowel cancer include:
Having a high fat diet.
With celiac disease.
Having familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
These signs and symptoms may be caused by small bowel cancer or other diseases. Consult your doctor if you have any of the following:
Pain or tightness in the middle of the abdomen.
Weight loss for no apparent reason.
Feeling a lump in the abdomen.
The presence of blood in the stool.
Techniques that take pictures of the small intestine and its surroundings help diagnose small bowel cancer and show how far the cancer has spread. The process of understanding that cancer cells have spread in and around the small intestine is called cancer staging.
To plan treatment, it is important to discover the type of small bowel cancer and whether the tumor can be surgically removed. Tests and diagnostic methods, diagnosis and staging of small bowel cancer are usually performed simultaneously.
Read more about A variety of treatment methods for colon cancer in Iran.
Physical examination and medical history: Examination of the body to check for general health symptoms, including the onset of symptoms, such as lumps or anything that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be recorded.
Blood chemistry studies: A method in which a blood sample is examined to measure the amount of certain substances released by the blood by organs and tissues in the blood. An unusual amount (higher or lower than normal) of a substance can be a sign of disease.
Liver function tests: A method in which a blood sample is taken to measure the amount of certain substances released by the liver into the blood. Excess levels of a substance can be a sign of liver disease that may be caused by small bowel cancer.
Endoscopy: This is a method of examining organs and tissues inside the body to examine abnormal areas. There are different types of endoscopy:
Upper endoscopy: A method of examining the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine, near the stomach). The endoscope is inserted through the mouth into the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The endoscope is a thin instrument such as a tube with light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples that are examined under a microscope for signs of cancer.
Capsule endoscopy: A method of examining the inside of the small intestine. A capsule the size of a large tablet containing a light and a small wireless camera is swallowed by the patient. The capsule passes through the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, and sends large images from inside the gastrointestinal tract to a recording device that is worn around the waist or over the shoulder. The images are sent from a recorder to a computer and viewed by a doctor who is examining the symptoms of cancer. The capsule is expelled from the body during defecation.
Double balloon endoscopy: A method of examining the inside of the small intestine. A special device consisting of two tubes (one inside the other tube) enters the small intestine through the mouth or rectum. The inner tube (endoscope with light and lens for viewing) travels through part of the small intestine and inflates a balloon at the end to hold the endoscope in place. Next, the outer tube travels through the small intestine to the end of the endoscope, and a balloon is inflated at the end of the outer tube to hold it in place. The endoscope balloon is then emptied and the endoscope is passed through the next part of the small intestine. These steps are repeated over and over again as the tubes move through the small intestine. The doctor can look inside the small intestine through an endoscope and use a tool to remove abnormal tissue samples. Tissue samples are examined under a microscope for signs of cancer. If the endoscopic results of the capsule are abnormal, this procedure may be performed. This method is also called double balloon enteroscopy.
The prognosis (probability of improvement) and treatment options depend heavily on the following:
Laparatomy: A surgical procedure in which an incision (incision) is made in the abdominal wall to examine the inside of the abdomen for signs of disease. The size of the incision depends on the laparotomy. Sometimes organs or lymph nodes are removed or tissue samples are taken and examined under a microscope for signs of disease.
Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be seen under a microscope to look for signs of cancer. This may be done during endoscopy or laparotomy. The sample is examined by a pathologist to see if it has cancer cells.
Upper GI series with small bowel follow-up: a set of x-rays of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine. The patient drinks a liquid that contains barium (a white-silver metallic compound). This fluid covers the esophagus, stomach and small intestine. X-rays are taken at different times as barium passes through the upper GI and small intestine.
CT scan (CAT scan): A method that provides a series of accurate images of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The images were taken by a computer connected to an X-ray machine. A pigment may be injected into a vein or swallowed to show it more clearly to organs or tissues. This method is also called computed tomography, computed tomography or computed tomography.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): A method that uses magnets, radio waves, and a computer to create a set of accurate images of areas inside the body. This method is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
Factors affecting prognosis (probability of improvement) and treatment options
Type of small bowel cancer.
Whether the cancer is only in the lining of the small intestine or has spread beyond it.
Whether the cancer has spread to other organs in the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, or peritoneum (the tissue that covers the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen).
Whether cancer can be completely eradicated with surgery.
Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or recurred.
Tests and staging methods for small intestine cancer are usually done at the same time as the diagnosis.
There are three ways in which cancer spreads in the body.
Cancer may spread from where it started to other parts of the body.
Small bowel cancer is grouped based on whether or not the tumor is completely removed with surgery.
Staging is used to detect the extent of cancer, but treatment decisions are not made based on the stage. Read on to find out about the tests and methods used to diagnose, diagnose and stage small bowel cancer.
In three ways, cancer spreads throughout the body. Cancer can spread through tissue, lymphatic system and blood as follows:
Texture: Cancer spreads from where it started growing in nearby areas.
Lymphatic system: Cancer spreads from where it started when it entered the lymphatic system. Cancer spreads through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
Blood: Cancer spreads from where it enters the bloodstream. Cancer spreads through blood vessels to other parts of the body.
Cancer may spread from where it started to other parts of the body.
When the cancer has spread to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells are isolated from the site of origin (primary tumor) and spread through the lymphatic system or blood.
Lymphatic system: The cancer enters the lymphatic system, passes through the lymphatic vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
Blood: The cancer enters the bloodstream, travels through blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
A metastatic tumor is the same type of primary tumor cancer: For example, if small bowel cancer spreads to the liver, the liver cancer cells are actually the same cells of the small intestine. It is a metastatic small bowel cancer, not a liver cancer.
Small bowel cancer is grouped based on whether or not the tumor is completely removed surgically.
Treatment depends on whether the tumor can be removed surgically and whether the cancer is treated as a primary tumor or the cancer is metastatic.
Read more about Frequently Asked Questions About Cervical Cancer.
Recurrent intestine cancer is a cancer that has come back (returned) after treatment. The cancer may return to the small intestine or other parts of the body.
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