Colon cancer diagnosis and treatment in Iran / Different methods of colon cancer treatment / Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery to treat colon cancer in Iran / The best oncology and gastroenterology specialist to treat colon cancer in Iran / The best clinic, hospital and specialized laboratory for Diagnosis of small intestine treatment in Iran
Cost of cancer treatment with colon surgery in Iran: 2500-4000
For people with colorectal cancer in whom the cancer has not spread to distant parts of the body, surgery is usually considered the main treatment. Chemotherapy may also be used after surgery (called adjuvant therapy). Most adjuvant treatments are given over a period of about 6 months.
What is colon cancer?
Colorectal cancer, as its name implies, is a type of cancer that develops in the large intestine or colon. The large intestine is part of the body's digestive system.
Colorectal cancer most often affects adults, especially the elderly, but it can occur at any age. This cancer often begins as a very small, benign mass of cells called intestinal polyps that accumulate inside the intestine. Over time, some of these polyps can develop into colon cancer.
Polyp glands are often small and have a slow growth rate. They also either have no symptoms or show very few symptoms. For this reason, doctors recommend that more high-risk individuals undergo regular, annual diagnostic tests to prevent early detection and removal of polyps before bowel cancer occurs.
If bowel cancer is not stopped in time, and a person gets it, there are many treatments that can help control it. Surgery, radiation therapy, medication such as chemotherapy, targeted therapies and immunotherapy are all effective ways to treat colon cancer.
Keep in mind that colorectal cancer is sometimes called colorectal cancer. A term that combines colon cancer with anal cancer. This type of colon cancer begins in the anus.
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Symptoms of colon cancer
Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:
Persistent changes in bowel irritation habits, including diarrhea, constipation, or stool deformity
Anal bleeding or blood in the stool
Persistent abdominal discomfort such as cramps, bloating, or persistent pain
Feeling that the abdomen is not completely emptied
Weakness or fatigue
Weight loss for no reason
Many people with colon cancer do not experience any symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When they show their symptoms, they are likely to vary greatly from person to person, depending on the size of the cancerous tumor and its location in the gut.
Treatment of colon cancer stage 0
Because colorectal cancers do not grow beyond the inner lining of the colon at stage 0, surgery is often the only treatment needed to remove the cancer. In most cases, this can be done by removing the polyp or removing the cancerous area with a colonoscope (local resection). If the cancer is too large and does not go away with a local resection, a partial resection (partial colectomy) may be necessary.
Treatment of colon cancer stage I
In early-stage colon cancer, the cancer has grown in the lining of the colon, but has not spread beyond the wall of the colon or adjacent lymph nodes.
Stage I includes cancers that were part of the polyp. If the polyp is completely removed during a colonoscopy, another treatment may be needed without the cancer cells on the edges.
If the cancer in the polyp is high or there are cancer cells on the edges of the polyp, additional surgery may be recommended. Also, if the polyp cannot be completely removed or many pieces have to be removed, you may be advised to have additional surgery, so it is difficult to tell if cancer cells are on the edges.
For cancers that are not in polyps, partial colectomy is performed to remove part of the colon that has cancer and the lymph nodes adjacent to standard treatment. You will usually not need treatment anymore.
Treatment of colon cancer stage II
Many stage II cancers have grown through the wall of the colon and possibly into nearby tissue, but have not spread to the lymph nodes.
Surgery to remove part of the colon containing cancer (partial colectomy) with adjacent lymph nodes may be the only treatment needed. However, if your cancer is more likely to come back (recurrence) due to certain factors, such as the following, he or she may recommend adjuvant chemotherapy (postoperative chemotherapy).
When observed closely in the laboratory, the cancer looks very abnormal (has a high grade).
The cancer has invaded nearby blood vessels or lymph nodes.
The surgeon did not remove at least 12 lymph nodes.
The cancer is found in the margin or edge of the removed tissue, meaning that part of the cancer may have remained.
Cancer has blocked the large intestine.
Cancer causes a hole in the wall of the large intestine.
Your doctor may also test your tumor for specific gene changes, MSI or MMR, to decide if adjuvant chemotherapy is helpful.
Not all doctors agree on when to use chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer. It is important for you to talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of chemotherapy, including how much it may reduce your risk of recurrence and what the possible side effects are.
If chemotherapy is used, the main options are 5-FU and leucovorin, oxaliplatin or capsaicin, but other compounds may be used.
Treatment of Colon Cancer Stage III
Stage III cancers of the colon have spread to nearby lymph nodes, but have not yet spread to other parts of the body.
Surgery to remove part of the colon with cancer (partial colectomy) with adjacent lymph nodes followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment for this stage.
Chemotherapy often uses drugs such as FOLFOX (5-FU, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) or CapeOx (capsaicin and oxaliplatin), but some patients may take 5-FU with lecovorin or capsaicin alone based on age and needs. Receive health.
For some advanced colon cancers that cannot be completely eliminated with surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy (also called chemoradiotherapy) may be recommended to shrink the cancer. Surgery to be removed. For some advanced cancers that have been surgically removed but have been shown to be attached to a nearby organ or have a positive margin (part of the cancer may remain), adjuvant radiation therapy may be recommended. Radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be an option for people who are not healthy enough for surgery.
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Treatment of colon cancer stage IV
Stage four colon cancers have spread from the large intestine to distant organs and tissues in the body. Colorectal cancer often spreads to the liver, but can also spread to other places such as the lungs, brain, peritoneum (lining of the abdomen) or distant lymph nodes.
In most cases, surgery is unlikely to cure these cancers. But if there are only a few small pieces of cancer (metastasis) that have spread to the liver or lungs and can be treated with colon cancer, surgery may help you live longer. This means surgery to remove the cancer-containing colon with adjacent lymph nodes, as well as surgery to remove the spread of cancer. Chemistry is also usually prescribed after surgery. In some cases, hepatic artery injections may be used if the cancer has spread to the liver.
If metastases cannot be eliminated because they are too large or too numerous, chemotherapy may be prescribed before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Then, if the tumors shrink, they may be removed. Chemistry may be prescribed again after surgery. For liver tumors, another option may be to eradicate them by erosion or embolization.
If the cancer has spread too far and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy is the main treatment. If cancer is blocking the colon or is likely to occur, surgery may still be the solution. Sometimes a stent (hollow metal tube) can be inserted into the colon during a colonoscopy to prevent such surgery. Otherwise, procedures such as colectomy or deviant colostomy (cutting the colon above the level of the cancer and attaching its end to a slit in the skin of the abdomen to remove waste) may be used.
If you have stage IV cancer and your doctor recommends surgery, it is important to understand the purpose of the surgery, whether it is trying to treat or prevent the cancer or relieving the symptoms of the cancer.
Most people with stage IV cancer need chemotherapy or targeted therapies to control the cancer. Some common medication plans include the following:
FOLFOX: Leucovorin, 5-FU and oxaliplatin (aloxatin)
FOLFIRI: Lecovorin, 5-FU and Irinotecan (Computosar)
CAPEOX or CAPOX: Capsitabine and oxaliplatin
FOLFOXIRI: Lecovorin, 5-FU, oxaliplatin and irinotecan
One of the above compounds plus a drug that targets VEGF (bevacizumab [Avastin], ziv-aflibercept [Zaltrap] or ramucirumab [Cyramza]) or a drug that targets EGFR (cetuximab [Erbitux] or panitumumab [Vectibix]) Give))
5-FU and leucorin, with or without targeted drug
Capsitabine, with or without targeted medication
Irinotecan, with or without targeted medication
Regorafenib (Stivarga) alone
Trifluoridine and tiprasyl (Lonsurf)
The choice of these drugs depends on various factors, including previous treatments and your overall health.
If one of these diets no longer works, another may be tested. For people who have certain changes in the tumor in the MMR genes, another option after initial chemotherapy may be treatment with an immunotherapy drug such as pembrolizumab (Keytruda) or nivolumab (Opdivo).
For advanced cancers, radiation therapy can also be used to prevent or relieve the symptoms of colon cancer, such as pain. It may also be used to treat enlarged areas such as the lungs or bones. It may shrink tumors for a while, but it probably won't cure cancer. If your doctor recommends radiation therapy, it is important that you understand the purpose of the treatment.
Treatment of recurrent colon cancer
Recurrent or recurrent cancer means the cancer returns after a course of treatment. Recurrence may be localized (near the primary tumor site) or may occur in distant organs.
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If the cancer comes back locally, surgery (which often requires chemotherapy) can sometimes help you live longer and may even cure you. If the cancer is not removed surgically, chemotherapy may be tried first. If the tumor is small enough, surgery may be an option. It may require more chemotherapy.
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