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Leukemia in children: cause, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Iran


Leukemia treatment in iran

Children's leukemia radiotherapy treatment in Iran / The best hospitals and radiotherapy centers for children's leukemia radiotherapy in Iran / The best oncology and hematology specialist for children's leukemia treatment in Iran


The cost of chemotherapy in Iran: average 2000-3000 dollars (depending on the type of drug used and the number of chemotherapy sessions)
The cost of radiotherapy in Iran: 140-1500 dollars

Average stay in Iran: 10-25 days

Return to work after chemotherapy and leukemia treatment: 10-15 days
Place of hospitalization: Specialized hospitals for the treatment of leukemia in Iran
Duration of hospital stay: Depends on the course of treatment.
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According to the definition of leukemia in English refers to cancer of the body's hematopoietic tissues, including bone marrow and lymphatic system. There are different types of leukemia, some of which are more common in children and some of which are more common in adults.

 

Leukemia in children is rare but it is unfortunate that it is common in world; And according to doctors, one of the main reasons is the consumption of additives and preservatives in a variety of foods, beverages and snacks and sweets and so on! Preservatives are carcinogenic and gradually weaken the body's immune system, setting the stage for the growth of cancerous tumors.

To stay healthy, we must have clean blood. A clean blood is rich in nutrients and balance in the production and proliferation of each of the following four blood cells is very important:

White blood cells with the task of defending the body against infections

Red blood cells with the task of delivering oxygen

Platelets to clot the blood and prevent unreasonable bleeding and

Plasma to deliver salt, water, nutrients, enzymes and beneficial hormones to the body

Normally produced and proliferated blood cells perform their functions and then die, but cancer cells do not die; Rather, they are constantly proliferating and their offensive division is so large that it destroys the entire function of healthy cells and paralyzes organs.

 

The most common and worst types of leukemia in children are leukemia and lymphoma. These two types of cancer are each divided into subtypes and have specialized treatments:

Definition of leukemia in simple way: overgrowth of white blood cells so that the bone marrow can not produce enough red blood cells and platelets. Although the number of white blood cells increases, they do not do their job properly because the unhealthy type replaces them.

Definition of lymphoma in simple way: a bad mutation is made in the lymph cells and the body's immune system and the immune system is severely weakened. Lymphoma leukemia actually affects tissues such as the intestines, skin, spleen, etc. because the lymphatic vessels pass through these tissues.

 

The symptoms of leukemia in children are definite and not necessarily a sign of leukemia, but if they are seen in a child, do not hesitate and get a medical examination. In addition to the symptoms in the image above, other sub-symptoms also appear after the destruction of limb function. For example, nausea and vomiting due to impaired gastric function, imbalance and concentration, and blurred vision due to neurological dysfunction, red to brown discoloration of blood-borne leukemia (metastasis), and so on. In addition, if you see swollen lymph nodes in the lower arm, neck, upper clavicle, and groin of your baby, get medical attention right away.

It is important to check the health of the liver and spleen because leukemia can enlarge these organs. Bone marrow sampling, various blood tests, spinal exams, MRIs, genetic testing, etc. may also be performed.

The cause of leukemia in children is often unclear; Mutations in the DNA of blood cells (genetic mutations in one or more cells that are not related to the parents and are not inherited) are root causes; But there is a lot of debate about what or what caused this leap.

We have an interesting article about DNA in the nucleus of a cell that is damaged and repaired in humans about 10,000 times a day! This damage is often due to environmental and nutritional factors and high stress. Now, if the conditions are not right for DNA repair, healthy cells in the bone marrow will not be produced or damaged, and the conditions will be ready for gene mutation. For example, when the body is exposed to X-rays and gamma rays, there is a possibility that the DNA strand will be torn; If our body is deficient in protein, the chances of repairing this strand are lower and the conditions are better prepared for mutation in the negative direction.

 

Here are some common causes of leukemia in children:

1-Hereditary causes: Leukemia of one of the twins or family members and a first-degree relative (leukemia), for example

2- Radiotherapy or chemotherapy for another type of cancer that causes leukemia. Falling from hole to well !!!

3- Sometimes taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant can lead to leukemia!

4- Genetic problems such as Down syndrome, Klein-Felter, a series of inherited blood and brain disorders

5-Inherited genetic mutations and the inability of blood cells to break down harmful chemicals and expel them from the body

6- Viral agents

7- Environmental factors such as contact with gasoline and benzene chemicals, ion beams, radioactivity, hair dye and petrochemicals, etc.

8- Contact of the child's body with toxic insecticides at home and toxic pesticides on farms and fruits and…

9- When the mother has taken artificial ovulation drugs for fertility; The risk of leukemia increases after birth and in childhood.

 

Cause of leukemia in children from the perspective of traditional medicine

Traditional Iranian medicine is the main cause of various types of cancer:

 
consumption of industrial and chemical nutrition containing preservatives and additives and imitation of wrong patterns and non-observance of sleeping and waking etiquette and drinking and eating, transmission of latent infections from mother to fetus before birth, and Knows the types of severe psychological stress. It is said that stress and strain on various nerves are the causes of various diseases.

 

Longevity of leukemia patients in children

According to the medical site Medical News Today, the survival rate of leukemia patients (types of leukemia) after 5 years of treatment is about 62%. This percentage is higher for children and adolescents (under twenty). About 80% of children with lymphoblastic leukemia are treated.

The mortality rate at these ages, provided treatment and follow-up (under 20), is only 2.2%. The older you get, the more likely you are to die.


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The following are involved in the death rate and leukemia patients:

1. Age

2. Time to diagnose the disease and start treatment

3. Progression of the disease (whether it can be treated or not…)

4. The type of leukemia because there are different types of leukemia and leukemia itself has sub-categories as a type of cancer

5. Hereditary and family history of infection

6. The extent of damage to the bone or organ involved in cancer

7. Exposure to chemicals such as benzene and petrochemicals

8. Contact with radio waves or chemotherapy

9. Chromosomal changes

10. The degree of resistance of the patient's body and his response to treatments

11. Blood cell count

12. Exposure to cigarette smoke or smoking tobacco and so on.

 

The worst type of leukemia in children

 

Acute bone marrow leukemia (AML leukemia)

This type of cancer starts in the cerebellum, and because the bone marrow produces all the white, red, plasma, and platelet blood cells, it endangers their health and grows rapidly. This type of cancer most often affects people over 65 years of age and the risk of developing it is higher in the following conditions:

smoking

Contact with petrochemicals and benzene has a bad effect on the body

Exposure to radio waves and radiation from chemotherapy increases the risk of cancer.

Some blood and genetic disorders such as Down syndrome

 

The following cancers are difficult to treat:

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Chronic bone marrow leukemia (CML)

Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cancers that target the lymphatic and immune systems; and

Myeloma, which begins in the blood plasma (the center of production of antibodies against infections) and breaks down bone marrow.

 

Diagnosis of leukemia in children

Doctors may find chronic leukemia in a routine blood test before symptoms begin. If this happens, or if you have any signs or symptoms that indicate cancer, you may have the following diagnostic tests:

Physical examination: Your doctor will look for physical signs of leukemia, such as pale skin due to anemia, swollen lymph nodes, and enlarged liver and spleen.

blood test: By looking at a sample of your blood, your doctor can detect abnormal levels of red or white blood cells or platelets - which may be leukemia.

Bone marrow test: Your doctor may recommend a procedure similar to the one shown in the image above to remove a bone marrow sample from your hip bone. The bone marrow is removed using a long, narrow needle. The sample is sent to a laboratory to detect cancer cells. Specialized tests for leukemia cells may show certain characteristics that are used to determine your treatment options.


Read more about leukemia symptoms

What is a leukemia test like?

To accurately diagnose leukemia in children, various tests are performed, and each has its own terms and descriptions. It is normal for initial blood tests to be taken.

 

Brief explanation of the most important terms in blood tests:

Anemia with RBC test means counting red blood cells.

CBC blood test: to measure different types of blood cells

Blood test to measure the level of various chemicals in the blood such as electrolyte balance (magnesium potassium…), various proteins albumin, beta-2 microglobulin, LDH, etc., blood glucose and cholesterol, blood chemicals that indicate the function of the kidneys and liver Are, thyroid hormone, minerals such as iron, calcium, potassium…, vitamins B12 and folate and so on.

Blood protein test (immunoglobulin IG): to check for abnormal proteins in the immune system

ANC test to count neutrophil white blood cells in the blood that fight infections

OW FLOW CYTOMETRY test: To check the number of white blood cells in the blood or bone marrow and whether these white blood cells are causing cancer.

FISH test: To look for chromosomal changes in cancer cells

KARYOTYPE: Each cell has 46 chromosomes, which check their size, shape, number, and order, and abnormalities.

 

PCR test to measure blood biomarkers or bone marrow cells and to evaluate the patient's molecular response to treatments

 

Types of leukemia tests

AFP test: measurement of alpha-phytoprotein levels in the blood; High levels are associated with liver cancer.

PSA test: To test for prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen whose high levels are linked to cancer.

CA-19-9 test: High levels of CA-19-9 in the blood can be a sign of tumor growth in the liver and gastrointestinal tract.

The CA-125 test can be a sign of the growth of ovarian cancer.

CALCITONIN test for thyroid cancer


Read more about Frequently Asked Questions About Cervical Cancer.

Definitive treatment of leukemia in children / Is leukemia treatable in children?

No definitive treatment for leukemia has yet been considered. Treatment for leukemia depends on many factors. Your doctor will determine your cancer treatment options based on your age and general health, the type of cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of your body, including the central nervous system.


Read more about Cause of leukemia | Why do we get leukemia?

Common treatments used to fight this cancer include:

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for leukemia. This drug treatment uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Depending on the type of cancer, you may be taking a medicine or a combination of medicines. These medications may need to be taken orally or injected directly into a vein.

Biological treatment: Biologic therapy works with therapies that help your immune system identify and attack cancer cells.

Targeted treatment: Targeted therapy uses drugs that attack specific vulnerable parts of your cancer cells. For example, imatinib (Gleevec) blocks the function of proteins in the blood cancer cells of people with chronic myelogenous cancer. This can help control the disease.

Radiotherapy: Radiation therapy uses X-rays or other high-energy rays to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. During radiation therapy, while a large device is moving around you, you lie on a bed and the radiation is directed to precise parts of your body. You may receive radiation in a specific area of ​​your body where there is a collection of cancer cells, or the radiation may be directed to your entire body. Radiation therapy may also be used to prepare for stem cell transplantation.

 Read more about radiotherapy in leukemia in Iran

Stem cell transplantation. Stem cell transplantation is a procedure in which the involved bone marrow is replaced with a healthy bone marrow. Before a stem cell transplant, you will receive high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill the bone marrow involved. It is then injected into hematopoietic stem cells, which help regenerate your bone marrow. You may receive stem cells from a donor, or in some cases you may use your own stem cells. Stem cell transplantation is very similar to bone marrow transplantation.

 

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