Symptoms of endometrial cancer / Endometrial cancer treatment in Iran / The best hospitals for endometrial cancer surgery and treatment in Iran / The best oncology hospitals and clinics for endometrial cancer treatment in Iran
The cost of chemotherapy in Iran for the treatment of endometriosis: 2000-3000 $ on average (depending on the type of drug used and the number of chemotherapy sessions)
The cost of radiotherapy for the treatment of endometriosis in Iran: 140-1,500 dollars
Endometrial cancer begins in the cells that make up the lining cells of the uterus (endometrium or lining of the uterus). Sometimes endometrial cancer is also called uterine cancer. Other cancers, such as uterine sarcoma, can develop inside the uterus but are much less common than endometrial cancer.
Due to the frequent and abnormal vaginal bleeding, women usually see a doctor quickly, which often leads to the diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the early stages. If endometrial cancer is diagnosed quickly, surgical removal of the uterus can cure and cure the cancer.
What are the symptoms of endometrial cancer?
Endometrial cancer symptoms
Symptoms of endometrial cancer include the following:
Vaginal bleeding after menopause
Bleeding between menstrual periods
Abnormal discharge of watery or bloody discharge
Feeling pain during sexual intercourse
The right time to see a doctor
See your doctor if you have bleeding or vaginal discharge unrelated to menstruation, pelvic pain, or pain during intercourse.
The causes of this cancer are not exactly known. What has been found is that sometimes genetic mutations occur in the cells of the endometrium (cells lining the uterus).
Genetic mutations cause normal, normal cells to become abnormal. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a regulated rate and eventually die at a certain time. The growth and proliferation of abnormal cells is out of control and is not destroyed at the appointed time. Abnormal cell accumulation forms a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and can separate from the primary tumor and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).
Altering the balance of female hormones
The ovaries produce two main types of female hormones - estrogen and progesterone. Fluctuations in the balance of these hormones cause changes in the endometrium.
Any disease or condition that raises estrogen levels but does not alter progesterone can increase the risk of endometrial cancer. These include the irregular pattern of ovulation, which can occur in women with polycystic ovaries, obesity and diabetes. Postmenopausal hormone therapy, which contains estrogen but no progesterone, increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
Rare types of ovarian tumors that secrete estrogen can also increase the risk of endometrial cancer.
The onset of menstruation at an early age - before the age of 12 - or late menopause increases the risk of endometrial cancer. The more menstrual cycles, the more the uterus is exposed to estrogen.
Women who have never been pregnant are at higher risk for endometrial cancer than women who have experienced pregnancy at least once.
The older you get, the higher your risk of endometrial cancer. Most endometrial cancers occur in older postmenopausal women.
Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer because excess fat alters the body's hormonal balance.
Hormone therapy for breast cancer
Women with breast cancer who take tamoxifen have a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer. If you are being treated with tamoxifen, talk to your doctor about the risk of using this medicine. In most women, the benefits of taking tamoxifen far outweigh the risks of endometrial cancer.
Hereditary colon cancer syndrome
Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) is a syndrome that increases the risk of colon cancer and other cancers, including endometrial cancer. Hereditary non-polyp colon cancer is caused by a gene mutation and is passed from parents to children. If HNPCC is diagnosed in a family member, you should talk to your doctor about the risk of genetic syndrome. If you have HNPCC, ask your doctor about cancer screening tests.
Endometrial cancer can spread throughout the body, making successful treatment more difficult. Endometrial cancer that spreads (metastasizes) usually affects the lungs.
Preparing to see a doctor
See your GP or gynecologist if you notice any worrying symptoms. If you are diagnosed with endometrial cancer, you will be referred to a gynecological oncologist.
Write this information on a piece of paper before referring:
The symptoms you have seen, even the symptoms that are not related to endometrial cancer
Any medication you are currently taking, even vitamins or herbal supplements. History of hormone therapy, including birth control pills, tamoxifen, or other hormonal therapies.
All your initial visits and consultations will be done in person and through telemedicine in the Angels of Tourism application.
All your visits and copies will be exported and saved electronically.
Questions to ask your doctor
Arrange the questions from important to less important so that you get more important information when the visit is over. Questions such as:
What is the main cause of these symptoms?
What other factors might be causing these symptoms?
What tests should I do to diagnose cancer?
Do I need other tests to diagnose cancer?
What treatment options do I have? What are the side effects of each treatment? What effect do they have on sexual desire?
What is the most appropriate treatment option?
Is there an alternative to the treatment option of choice?
With another physical problem, how can both be managed and controlled?
What should I avoid? What are the limitations?
Has my cancer spread? At what stage is it?
What is your diagnosis of my disease?
Do I need to see a specialist? How much does this referral cost? Does health insurance cover this cost?
Will I receive a brochure or any written information to enhance my knowledge in this area?
Do you recommend a specific site?
Do not be afraid to ask questions and get information. Ask any question that has caused you anxiety or mental conflict without a moment's hesitation to get enough information.
Doctor questions from you
Have you ever had vaginal bleeding or other discharge? How often does it happen?
Do you have pelvic pain?
Did you have any other symptoms?
Are the symptoms occasional or permanent?
What conditions improve the symptoms?
What conditions make the symptoms worse?
Do you use only estrogen in hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms?
Have you had a history of cancer?
Does a family member have a history of cancer? At what age was cancer diagnosed? What type of cancer was it?
Diagnosis of endometrial cancer
During the pelvic exam, the doctor carefully examines the outside of the genitals and then inserts two fingers into the vagina and presses the abdomen with the other hand to feel the uterus and ovaries. He also inserts a device called a dilator (a device to keep it open for better examination) to examine the vagina and cervix for abnormalities.
Use Ultrasound to image the uterus
Your doctor may order a transvaginal ultrasound to check the thickness and texture of the endometrium, as well as to rule out other problems. In this method, a cane-shaped tool (called a transducer) is inserted into the vagina. This converter uses sound waves to create a video image of the uterus. This method helps the doctor to observe abnormalities of the lining of the uterus.
Use a scope to examine the endometrium
The doctor inserts a narrow, flexible, illuminated tube (called a hysteroscope) through the vagina and cervix into the uterus for hysteroscopy. A lens mounted on a hysteroscope allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus as well as the endometrium.
An endometrial biopsy should be performed to sample intrauterine cells. This requires the removal of tissue from the lining of the uterus for laboratory tests. Endometrial biopsy can be done in a doctor's office and usually does not require anesthesia.
Perform surgery to remove endometrium tissue
If enough tissue is not removed during the biopsy or the biopsy results are unclear, a procedure called diagnostic curettage may be needed. In this procedure, tissue is shaved from the lining of the uterus and examined under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
If you are diagnosed with endometrial cancer, you will be referred to a specialist in the treatment of cancers of the female reproductive system (gynecological oncologist).
Staging of endometrial cancer
If cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will check for the extent (stage) of the cancer. Tests used to diagnose cancer include x-rays of the chest, computed tomography (CT) scans, positron emission tomography (PFT) scans, and blood tests. The final determination of the cancer stage is not made until the surgery is done for treatment.
Read more about Definitive treatment of cervical cancer.
The stages of endometrial cancer are:
Stage 1: Cancer is seen only in the uterus.
Stage 2: Cancer occurs in both the uterus and the cervix.
Stage 3: The cancer has spread beyond the uterus, but has not reached the bladder and rectum. The lymph nodes in the pelvic area may be involved.
Stage 4: The cancer has spread beyond the pelvis and can affect the bladder, rectum and distant parts of the body.
Treatment of uterine endometrial cancer Is endometrial cancer treatable?
Definitive treatment for endometrial cancer has not yet been discovered. The treatment option for this cancer depends on the characteristics of the uterine cancer, including its stage, general health, and patient preferences.
1) Surgery treatment for endometrial cancer in Iran
In most cases, hysterectomy is recommended for people with endometrial cancer. Most women undergo hysterectomy, as well as fallopian tubes and ovaries. Hysterectomy makes future pregnancy impossible for women. Also, if you are not menopausal, you will experience menopause by having your ovaries removed.
During surgery, the surgeon examines the area around the uterus for signs of cancer spread. The surgeon also removes the lymph nodes for testing. This helps determine the stage of the cancer.
In radiation therapy, high-energy rays, including X-rays, are used to kill cancer cells. In some cases, your doctor may recommend radiation therapy after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer coming back. In special cases, preoperative radiation therapy is recommended to shrink the tumor and make it easier to remove.
If your health condition is not very good for surgery, radiation therapy may be the only treatment. In women with advanced endometrial cancer, radiation therapy helps control cancer-related pain.
Radiation therapy can include the following:
Radiation therapy by a device from outside the body. This is called external beam radiation therapy. During this procedure, you lie on a table and the device shines the rays onto a specific part of the body.
Radiation therapy from inside the body. Internal radiation therapy involves inserting a device full of radiation - such as granules, wires, or small cylinders - into the vagina for a short time.
3) Hormone therapy treatment for endometrial cancer in Iran
Hormone therapy involves the administration of drugs that affect the body's hormone levels. Hormone therapy may be a good option if you have advanced endometrial cancer that has spread throughout the body. Options include:
Progesterone-boosting drugs in the body. Synthetic progestin (synthetic progesterone) is a hormone called progesterone that can stop the growth of endometrial cancer cells.
Estrogen-lowering drugs in the body. Hormonal drugs can lower the body's estrogen levels or make it harder for the body to use the available estrogen. Endometrial cancer cells are dependent on estrogen for their growth and are killed in response to these drugs.
4) Chemotherapy treatment for endometrial cancer in Iran
In chemotherapy, chemicals are used to kill cancer cells. One, two or more chemical drugs can be taken in combination. Chemotherapy drugs may be taken as pills (orally) or intravenously (intravenously). Chemotherapy may be given to women who have advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer that has spread throughout the body. These drugs enter the blood vessels and then spread throughout the body, killing cancer cells.
Read more about Frequently Asked Questions About Cervical Cancer.
For several reasons, chemotherapy in Iran has very reasonable and low costs:
1- Low treatment costs in Iran for foreigners
2- Low price of Iranian currency against the dollar
3- Drug expenses even for foreigners have government discounts.
4- Low hospitalization costs in Iran
5- Low costs of medical visits in Iran
Iran facilities for chemotherapy:
Hospitals and specialized treatment centers for cancer and hematology
There is a specialized treatment center for each disease
Skilled doctors in the field of cancer treatment
Read more about Treatment of uterine cancer in Iran.
Prevention of endometriosis cancer
Ask your doctor about the dangers of hormone therapy after menopause. If hormone therapy is prescribed to help control menopausal symptoms, talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement can increase the risk of endometrial cancer, unless a hysterectomy is performed. Taking estrogen and progesterone in combination can reduce this risk. Hormone therapy has other risks, for example, it may increase the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, evaluate the benefits and risks of this method with the help of a doctor.
Consider taking birth control pills as helpful. Taking birth control pills for at least a year can reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. This effect seems to continue for several years after stopping the pill. Of course, oral contraceptives also have side effects, so discuss the benefits and risks with your doctor.
Have a good weight. Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer, so try to gain and maintain a healthy weight. If you need to lose weight, increase your physical activity and reduce your calorie intake.
Be active most days of the week. Physical activity can reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Add exercise to your daily routine. Try to work out at least 30 minutes most days of the week. Even if you can exercise more.
Read more about Everything about radiotherapy for cervical cancer in Iran.
The best country to treat endometriosis cancer
Iran is known as a cheap country for all medical services and cosmetic surgery. Medical expenses in Iran are very cheap for other countries due to the general policies of the government and the low price of the Iranian currency against the dollar.
By traveling to Iran, you can get the best medical and tourist services at the most reasonable prices.
For example, we examine the cost of hysterectomy in Iran and several other countries:
Cost of hysterectomy in Iran
The cost of hysterectomy surgery in Canada
The cost of uterine cancer surgery in the United States
Cost of Cervical Surgery in Australia
Cost of hysterectomy in Turkey
4,000- 6,000 $
The cost of hysterectomy surgery in India