What is leukemia? / Leukemia diagnosis and definitive treatment methods in Iran / The best hospitals and radiotherapy centers for radiotherapy and chemotherapy for leukemia treatment in Iran / The best oncology and hematology specialist for leukemia treatment in Iran
The cost of chemotherapy in Iran: average 2000-3000 dollars (depending on the type of drug used and the number of chemotherapy sessions)
The cost of radiotherapy in Iran: 140-1500 dollars
Average stay in Iran: 10-25 days
Return to work after chemotherapy and leukemia treatment: 10-15 days
Place of hospitalization: Specialized hospitals for the treatment of leukemia in Iran
Duration of hospital stay: Depends on the course of treatment.
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What is leukemia?
According to the definition of leukemia in English refers to cancer of the hematopoietic tissues of the body, including the bone marrow and lymphatic system.
There are many types of leukemia. Some types of leukemia are more common in children. And other forms are more common in adults.
Leukemia usually affects white blood cells. Our white blood cells are powerful fighters against infection that grow and divide naturally in the body because our bodies need them. But in people with leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly.
Leukemia treatment can be complex and depends on the type of cancer and other factors. But there are strategies and resources that can help you succeed in your treatment.
The most common symptoms of leukemia
The symptoms of leukemia vary depending on the type of cancer. The most common symptoms of leukemia are:
Excessive fatigue and persistent weakness
Recurrent or severe infections
Weight loss for no reason
Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen
Easy bleeding or bruising
Frequent bleeding from the nose
Appearance of small red spots on the skin (petechiae)
Excessive sweating, especially at night
Pain or tenderness to the bones
Symptoms of leukemia in a blood test
Rarely, leukemia may be detected by looking at a blood test for other conditions. Therefore, it does not show the result of a leukemia test.
The symptoms of leukemia are often vague and not specific. Therefore, you may ignore the early signs of leukemia because it may resemble the symptoms of the flu and other common illnesses.
Scientists have not yet fully understood the definitive causes of this cancer. However, the disease appears to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
How leukemia forms
In general, this cancer is thought to occur when mutations are made in the DNA of some blood cells. The DNA inside each cell contains instructions that guide its function. There may be other changes in the cells that are not yet fully understood and may play a role in the development of leukemia.
Some abnormalities cause cells to grow and divide rapidly and survive when normal cells die. Over time, these abnormal cells can accumulate in healthy bone marrow blood cells, leading to a decrease in the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, which can lead to signs and symptoms. It becomes a type of cancer.
How to classify leukemia
Doctors classify leukemia based on the speed of progression and the type of cells involved.
The first type of classification is based on the rate of cancer progression:
Acute leukemia: In acute leukemia, abnormal blood cells are immature blood cells (blasts). They can not perform their normal functions and multiply quickly, so the disease gets worse quickly. Acute leukemia requires timely and invasive treatment.
Chronic leukemia: There are several types of chronic leukemia. Some produce a lot of cells and some do not. Chronic leukemia affects more mature blood cells. These blood cells proliferate or accumulate at a slower rate and can function normally for a period of time. Some types of chronic leukemia have no initial symptoms at first and can go unnoticed for years.
The second type is classified according to the type of white blood cell:
Lymphatic leukemia: This type of leukemia affects the lymph cells (lymphocytes) that make up the lymphatic or lymphatic tissue. Lymphatic tissue forms your immune system.
Myelogenous leukemia: This type of leukemia affects the myeloid cells. Myeloid cells produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelet-producing cells.
There are several types of leukemia
The main types of leukemia are:
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in young children. ALL also occurs in adults.
Acute Myelogen Leukemia (AML): AML is a type of leukemia. This type occurs in both children and adults. However, AML is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): CLL is the most common chronic leukemia in adults that may not cause any problems for years without treatment.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia mainly affects adults. A person with CML may have few or no symptoms for months or years before entering a stage where leukemia cells grow faster.
Other types: There are other rare types of leukemia, including hair cell leukemia, myeloplasty syndromes, and myeloproliferative disorders.
Factors that may increase the risk of certain types of leukemia include:
Cancer treatment in the past: People who have had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other cancers have an increased risk of developing certain types of leukemia.
Genetic disorders: Genetic abnormalities seem to play a significant role in the development of leukemia. Some genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, are associated with an increased risk of leukemia.
Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene (found in gasoline and used in the chemical industry), is associated with an increased risk of developing various types of leukemia.
Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.
Family history of leukemia: If a family member has leukemia, you are more likely to get the disease.
However, most people do not get cancer just because of these known risk factors. And many people with leukemia do not have any of these risk factors.
Diagnosis of leukemia
Doctors may find chronic leukemia in a routine blood test before symptoms begin. If this happens, or if you have any signs or symptoms that indicate cancer, you may have the following diagnostic tests:
Physical examination: Your doctor will look for physical signs of leukemia, such as pale skin due to anemia, swollen lymph nodes, and enlarged liver and spleen.
blood test: By looking at a sample of your blood, your doctor can detect abnormal levels of red or white blood cells or platelets - which may be leukemia.
Bone marrow test: Your doctor may recommend a procedure similar to the one shown in the image above to remove a bone marrow sample from your hip bone. The bone marrow is removed using a long, narrow needle. The sample is sent to a laboratory to detect cancer cells. Specialized tests for leukemia cells may show certain characteristics that are used to determine your treatment options.
Treatment for leukemia depends on many factors. Your doctor will determine your cancer treatment options based on your age and general health, the type of cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of your body, including the central nervous system.
Common treatments used to fight this cancer include:
Chemotherapy in iran: Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for leukemia. This drug treatment uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Depending on the type of cancer, you may be taking a medicine or a combination of medicines. These medications may need to be taken orally or injected directly into a vein.
Biological treatment in iran: Biologic therapy works by using treatments that help your immune system identify and attack cancer cells.
Targeted treatment in iran: Targeted therapy uses drugs that attack specific vulnerable parts of your cancer cells. For example, imatinib (Gleevec) blocks the function of proteins in the blood cancer cells of people with chronic myelogenous cancer. This can help control the disease.
Radiotherapy in iran: Radiation therapy uses X-rays or other high-energy rays to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. During radiation therapy, while a large device is moving around you, you lie on a bed and the radiation is directed to precise parts of your body. You may receive radiation in a specific area of your body where there is a collection of cancer cells, or the radiation may be directed to your entire body. Radiation therapy may also be used to prepare for stem cell transplantation.
Stem cell transplantation in iran: Stem cell transplantation is a procedure in which the involved bone marrow is replaced with a healthy bone marrow. Before a stem cell transplant, you will receive high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill the bone marrow involved. It is then injected into hematopoietic stem cells, which help regenerate your bone marrow. You may receive stem cells from a donor, or in some cases you may use your own stem cells. Stem cell transplantation is very similar to bone marrow transplantation.